Vitebsky Railway Station
This building on Zagorodnyj Avenue manages to successfully combine the seemingly incompatible. Rigid functionality, pragmatic rationality and easy flowing lines, a certain playfulness in weaving beams, arches, decorated with metal flowers.
The Vitebsky Railway Station has been one of the most important architectural landmarks of the city of Saint Petersburg since its construction in the 19th century.
The first one-story wooden building for the first Russian Tsarskoye Selo Railway was built in 1837. Traffic on the route St. Petersburg - Tsarskoe Selo was opened on October 30, 1837.
The first Russian railway ran from St. Petersburg via Tsarskoye Selo to Pavlovsk. It was built under the direction of Professor of the Vienna Polytechnic Institute F.-A. von Gerstner, specially invited to Russia for this purpose.
According to Gerstner's plan, the first railway station in Saint Petersburg had to be on the Fontanka River. However, the money allocated for the construction was only enough for the construction of the railway station and building in Tsarskoye Selo. It was then decided to build a temporary wooden station slightly away from the station under the allotted space. The very first run from St. Petersburg to Tsarskoye Selo locomotive brought himself von Gerstner. It covered the distance in 35 minutes, which at the time was a fantastic achievement. A special gala dinner was arranged for the occasion, after which the passengers went back to the capital by the same train. On the way back, von Gerstner wanted to showcase all the advantages of the new transport and the speed of the train reached more than 60 versts an hour. The journey from Tsarskoye Selo back to St. Petersburg took under 27 minutes.
Petersburg station built on the parade ground Semenov, looked quite modest: a wooden platform and space for passengers. The building adjoined several structures designed to work on the railroad employees and for the repair of locomotives and wagons, carriages. Nevertheless, it quickly became one of the new city's attractions.
The station became the new and Entertainment: many residents came there every day. The main spectacle was the arrival of the locomotive. The only thing that dumbfounded - a loud signal whistle, why had to hold his ears. Apparently, this was the reason that after a few weeks whistles on locomotives replaced the organ is small. Now about his arrival at the station machinists reported execution of popular tunes.
In the middle of the XIX century, the railway network continued to evolve. Temporary station in St. Petersburg, has been replaced by a two-story stone building of the terminus, created by architect Konstantin Ton.
Since 1900, the line became Tsarskoselskaya belong Moscow-Vindava-Rybinsk Railway, which built the path to Vitebsk. The new owners are planning to move the Vitebsk Station for Bypass channel or expand its territory at the expense of filling Vvedenskiy channel. But still managed to get only part of the parade ground and Semenov 1st regimental officers outbuilding on the site where the building is constructed of board railway. Due to high traffic driveways earth embankment was raised to a height of five meters. And at the intersection with bypass interchanges were made at two levels.
Number of passengers travel by rail, grew, and Vitebsk Station had to rebuild and expand - it became too cramped. In the early twentieth century to the main railway station building was built, the so-called Imperial Pavilion, which still exists today. Arriving there, and from there trains, which traveled the imperial family. At the same time, in 1904, was once again rebuilt itself Vitebsk Station.
The station building was built in the Art Nouveau style of architecture designed by academician Stanislav Antonovich Brzhozovsky. Participated in the construction of a civil engineer, Kara origin, Sima Isaakovich Minas. The project was also a new style of architecture, which included plenty of metal.
Was pronounced for the unusual layout of the building at the time when large volumes are grouped asymmetrically with regard to their functional purpose. In this building reads the basic principle of building a modernist buildings "inside - out." The external appearance of the building reflects its internal structure, which in turn creates a basis of rational considerations.
The basic premise station - it's a giant lobby with grand staircase. The height of the hall is more than twenty meters, the hall is crowned by a metal dome. The main staircase hall dominates the room, it is decorated with marble railing with decorative brass inlays. Natural lighting of the hall - daylight - passes through the hall located on all walls stained glass windows.